Proiect de cercetare PN-II-JRP nr. 13/2013

Catalytic biogas conversion under polarization
POLCA

Autoritatea contractanta: Unitatea Executiva pentru Finantarea Invatamantului suprior, a Cercetarii, Dezvoltarii si Inovarii

Director proiect: Dr. Mihaela Florea

The CONSORTIUM for this project has been carefully assembled to provide the necessary human and technical resources required for a highly challenging and multidisciplinary project. Special care was dedicated to verify that all stages of the R&D programme investigated in the project have the necessary critical mass respectively to achieve the specific objectives. The participant groups of the Consortium have complementary expertise, very well connected to the thematic of the project. It comprises two groups from well known institutes and universities with complementary expertise: Romanian Partner - Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Catalysis from Faculty of Chemistry, University of  Bucharest- and for the French Partner the group of “Clean and Renewable Energies”  which is formed from three teams, IRCELyon (Institut de Catalyse et de l'Environnement de Lyon) as principal investigator, LEPMI (The Laboratoire d’Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Matériaux et des Interfaces) and LPMG (Laboratoire des Procédés en Milieux Granulaires) as colaborators.

ABSTRACT

Today, it is evident that increasing effort has to be put into the valorization of renewable energy sources for energy supply and chemicals production as well. Among these sources, biogas represents the most widespread fuel obtained from biomass in recent years, thanks to the specific legislative tools aimed at increasing production in the various economic sectors involved and ranging from zootechnical to agro-industrial and the internal market in electricity. In 2005, the primary production of biogas was more than 205 800x109 kJ, with an annual increase of almost 25 200x109 kJ, over the next 5 years. This quantity is derived essentially from biogas produced by landfills (64%), the degradation of urban and industrial waste (18.8%), and co-digestion of zootechnical effluents, agricultural waste and energy crops (17.2%) [1]. Great Britain and Germany are the main producing countries contributing, respectively, 39% and 35% to the entire amount.

The main objective is to better understand the various phenomena involved in the catalytic reforming reactions of biogas to produce hydrogen when the catalytic process is based on the use of oxygen-permeable membranes, i.e. in conditions where the reactions are necessarily influenced by the transport of O2- ions to the catalytic site. As a major originality of the approach, it is intended to take into account the presence of main impurities (S-containing compounds and NH3) in the study and to assess the influence of these impurities on the catalytic processes under polarization: reforming reactions AND eventual conversion of the impurities. Data will be used to design, as end-product, a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fed with biogas containing main impurities (H2S and NH3) and operating at intermediate temperatures (700-800°C). The end-product will integrate a Catalytic Anodic Membrane (CAM) layer deposited on an optimized commercially available Ni cermet anode and aiming at converting methane into hydrogen. The project thus appears as multidisciplinary, associating competences in catalysis (synthesis and reactivity), electrochemistry and technology to manufacturing of complete electrochemical cells.

OBJECTIVES

The main objective of the project is to contribute to the deeper understanding of the various phenomena involved in the catalytic reforming reactions of fuels to produce hydrogen when the catalytic process is based on the use of oxygen-permeable membranes, i.e. in conditions where the reactions are necessarily influenced by the transport of O2- ions to the catalytic site. It focuses on the use and the valorization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of organic wastes (methanizers). To this respect and as an innovative approach, it is intended to take into account the presence of main impurities (S-containing compounds and NH3) in the study.

On these bases, effort will be put into the preparation and the study of innovative catalytic materials with conductive properties showing improved catalytic behavior in dry/steam reforming of methane (resistance to carbon formation, resistance to poisoning, low harmful emissions). Noble metal (NM) based materials will be studied with the aim of decreasing the NM loading. The preparation of mixed oxides with improved activity as substitutes to NM catalysts will be also investigated. The influence of the polarization will be carefully studied experimentally and compared with data obtained from modeling. Findings will be applied to design a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell fed with biogas containing main impurities (H2S and NH3) and operating at intermediate temperatures (700-800°C). The end-product will integrate a Catalytic Anodic Membrane layer deposited on an optimized commercially available Ni cermet anode and aiming at converting methane into hydrogen and hydrogen into electrical power. The objective of reaching electrical power more than 0.5 W.cm-2 at 800°C and stable operation for more than 1000 h will be targeted with the elaboration of original Cu based current collectors prepared by screen printing.

MILESTONES

The present project aims at reaching three main milestones closely linked to each other. The first milestone lies on the fundamental character of the project. It consists in more deeply understanding the various phenomena involved in the catalytic reforming reactions when the catalytic process is influenced by the transport of O2- ions to the catalytic site. This concerns a wide range of practical applications such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and more generally catalytic membrane reactors. Surprisingly, there is a lack of data in the literature concerning the effect of polarization and current flow on the activity of catalytic materials. The project aims at filling this lack and this makes it new and original. A special device will be designed and mounted to replace conventional micro-reactors usually utilized in catalytic studies.
The second milestone is to address the valorization of bio-resources by focusing on biogas, which represents already today the most widespread fuel obtained from biomass. The production of biogas is expected to still strongly increase in the next few years due to the development of the technology and the equipments of methanization of wastes in Europe and in France in particular. Increasing research effort has then to be put in this field to propose improved technologies based on the use of biogas for energy supply or production of chemicals with more added-value.
The third milestone is more applicative. The end-product will be a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell directly operated on CH4-rich CH4/CO2 mixtures (biogas) containing impurities (H2S and NH3) at intermediate temperatures (800°C) in view of the direct feeding of the cell by biogas produced from methanizers. This will be based on the experience already acquired by our laboratories and proving that the innovative SOFC architecture integrating a barrier-layer with catalytic function so called Catalytic Anodic Membrane (CAM) can be used.  Fundamental studies carried out in the project will be widely used to help in the elaboration of the prototype.

PROJECT TEAM

Mihaela Florea

Florentina Neatu

Octavian Pavel

Adriana Urda

Codruta Rotaru

 

 

 

 

Pagină actualizată la 18 Noiembrie 2015.